[beagleboard] Bluetooth over UART

It doesn’t look like a BT adapter but like a BT to serial bridge. Just use it as any other device connected to a serial port. I don’t know this module, but I’d assume that once configured it is completely transparent. Everything what you send to it is transmitted to the rfcomm on the other end, everything what the other rfcomm transmits is send to your beaglebone.
Linux’s bluetooth stack will not work with it and there is no need to use it. Just configure the module (name, serial speed, etc), pair with the other device and forget that you have it.