Web application with the BeagleBone Black

Hello everybody, I want to make an application for a BeagleBone Black running linux connected to a magnetic card reader and a touchscreen, the BeagleBone Black will be connected to the internet. When a user passes his card trough the reader the code in the card is sent to a remote server which finds information related to the user in a database (text and pictures) and then sends this information back to the BeagleBone Black to be shown.

What are the best programming languages and libraries to develop this application in the BeagleBone Black and in the server without using a web browser? Do you know of any open source software that do what I ask?