How do you find out which libraries should be included for supporting your project’s goal and operations?
for example: BBB with Linux Kernel OS, using I2C peripheral and using a few GPIO
I’m trying to figure out how (in general, not just for the specific example above) you find out which libraries are available, and which ones you should use for your project.
'ls -l /usr/lib' will give you a list of the majority of the compiled libraries on your Linux system. However, each Linux system is different and it depends which you use to how best to tell what is installed.
As for figuring out which libraries you should be using then that's a job for you and Google. There is no magic 'Linux Marketplace' which lists all available software, you have to go looking for what you specifically want.
If you are interested in programming in C then I can recommend libsoc which supports I2C and GPIO. If you are using Robert Nelsons new debain based images, then this library is already available to you.